Cultural psychologists have been drawn to how parenting styles affect social development. But getting real cause and effect relationships between certain behaviors of parents and the next conduct of a child is difficult.
Some kids that are raised in many various settings can in time grow to have surprisingly similar qualities or characters. On the other hand, kids who contribute to a household and are nurtured in similar surroundings can evolve to possess unique personalities.
Regardless of these challenges, experts have theorized that there are relationships between child-rearing styles and their effects on child development. These impacts, some imply, are continued into grown-up behavior.
What experts say about childcare styles?
Earlier of the 1960s, Diana Baumrind, a psychologist led research on over 100 kindergartens. By using natural observation, parental conversations and additional research techniques, she recognized some vital aspects of childcare.
These aspects include disciplinary tactics, nurturing, and warmth, interaction techniques, and opportunities for experience and self-control.
According to these aspects, Baumrind implied that many parents show one of the three unique parenting styles. More research by Martin and Maccoby also implied adding one more nurturing style to the original three.
Let’s discuss each of the parenting methods and the effects they have on social development.
Authoritarian style is amongst the three major types classified by Baumrind. In this type of parenting, kids are required to abide by the stern rules set by the mother or father. Failure to obey such rules ends in punishment. These parents don’t clarify the logic behind their rules. If they’re asked, they would simply answer, “Because I told you so.”
Authoritarian parents, according to Baumrind, are obedient and status-oriented and want their directives to be followed without justification.
They’re not open to their kids. They always expect their kids to excel and never commit any faults, yet they give little supervision regarding what their kids must do or elude sooner or later. Mistakes involve harsh punishment, but their kids are usually left questioning what their faults were.
The authoritative style is the second major type of parenting classified by Baumrind. Like authoritarian guardians, those who grew up with authoritative style set rules and regulations that kids are likely to obey. But this style of parenting is more informal.
These parents are approachable and eager to pay attention to their kids. They want a lot from their kids, but they give feedback, warmth and ample support.
Baumrind indicated that these folks “observe and teach clear principles for their kid’s behavior”. They are aggressive, but not pushy and prohibitive. Their punishing methods are encouraging, instead of grueling. Authoritative parents want their kids to be decisive and socially responsible, self-controlled as well as helpful.
Authoritative parents are more encouraging and forgiving when their kids fail to meet their expectations.
It’s the mixture of belief and encouragement that helps kids with authoritative parents nurture abilities such as discipline, freedom, and self-supervision.
Permissive style is the final type of parenting determined by Baumrind. These parents are sometimes called as generous parents since they only have few requests for their kids. They seldom punish their kids since they have low hopes of adulthood and self-will.
Permissive parents are communicative and caring with their kids, usually, act as a friend.
Eleanor Maccoby, a psychologist, and John Martin suggested a fourth type of parenting which is called uninvolved. This is a childcare style that is described by low receptiveness, few demands, and little interaction.
While uninvolved parents deliver the basic needs of their kids, they are disconnected from the life of their kid. They might guarantee that their children have shelter and are fed, but they give little or no support, guidance, structure, and rules. In some worst scenarios, they may even disregard the requirements of their kids,
Influence of parenting styles on social development
What effects do these techniques have on social development? Aside from the initial study of Baumrind of 100 nursery kids, experts have performed other researches that have resulted in several assumptions about the influence of parenting techniques on kids.
Among the discoveries of these researches:
- Authoritarian styles nurture kids who are skillful and obedient, however, they are poor in social competence, happiness, and confidence.
- Authoritative styles have kids who are talented, happy and productive.
- Permissive styles often led to a kid who is poor in self-regulation and sadder. These kids tend to have issues with power and more likely to underperform in school.
- Kids who are nurtured using uninvolved parenting are expected to rank lowest in all aspects of life. These kids have no self-discipline, are less skilled than their friends and possess low morale.
Why is authoritative parenting is the best style?
Because domineering parents are viewed as fair, realistic and honest so their kids tend to abide by the demands of their parents. Besides, these parents set the guidelines as well as the reasons for these standards, kids are expected to adopt these lessons.
Instead of obeying the guidelines because they are afraid of the penalty (as they would with dictatorial parents), the kids of autocratic parents understand why there are rules, know that they are fair-minded and always try to abide these regulations to fulfill their sense of what is correct. The parenting techniques of each parent also come together to establish a unique combination in each household. The mother, for example, may show a dominating way while the father is more permissive.
This at times results in mixed signals where a kid asks support from the more open-minded parent to obtain what they need. To establish a solid approach to childcare, parents must understand to work together as they merge several aspects of their distinctive parenting styles.
So, what’s the result when it comes to parenting styles?
Parenting styles are linked with various child results and the authoritative style is largely linked to good actions such as solid self-worth and self-competence. But other key factors such as culture, social influences and kid’s observations of parental care also perform a vital role in a child’s social development.